By David Joel Miller.
Does you temperament predispose you to mental illness?
Personality characteristics may be a risk factor for certain mental illnesses but the exact connection continues to be far from clear. Psychologists have long been interested in various personalities. Are you outgoing – let’s call that extroverted. Psychopharmacologists look for connections between meds, drugs of abuse and temperaments or personalities.
For the mental health community, the connection becomes more problematic. We are reluctant to diagnose someone as “mentally ill” because they are introverted, extroverted or have some other “personality type.” We really want to know that your personality issue or temperament is somehow interfering with your life, job, and friendships or making you miserable before we start saying that the way you are and were born, is somehow a disorder.
We know, or think we know, that some personality characteristics might increase your risk for certain disorders. To the extent that genetics play a role in mental illness your temperament just might be a factor in developing mental illness.
Hyperthymia is one of those possible risk factors.
Hyperthymic people are those people who have so much energy, do so many things and get so much done they annoy others. Goel, Terman and Terman (2002) defined Hyperthymia as equivalent to Hypomania but without the impairment. So if you lose control it is hypomania and you get diagnosed with a mental illness (Bipolar.) But Hyperthymia by this definition means you are able to hold it together.
In their discussion of Bipolar and creativity, Shapiro and Weisberg (1999) define Hyperthymia as those people who have had periods of hypomania but there had not been a period of depression. This inconsistency in definition for Hyperthymia leads to a lot of inconsistencies in our understanding of this personality dimension.
Does that mean people with Hyperthymia are mentally ill?
A Hyperthymic personality has been suggested as a possible precursor for Bipolar Disorder. Currently, the DSM-4 includes diagnoses for Bipolar I, the most severe kind and the Bipolar II variety with less visible mania, but not necessarily less severe, as the choices. Some theoreticians have suggested that there are also some “soft bipolar disorders.” They have suggested designations of Bipolar III and Bipolar IV for the less obvious forms.
Enter Bipolar III.
Shapiro and Weisberg suggested a diagnosis of Bipolar III for people who have depressive episodes and then when given antidepressants, experience hypomania. For them the only time Bipolar III’s are manic is when on meds. Other authors suggest or imply that most any person with Bipolar Disorder will react quickly and dramatically to antidepressants.
Could Hyperthymia be Bipolar IV?
One area of research has been the search for connections, precursors or predictors of future mental illness. These precursors are sometimes called “premorbid” conditions. If we knew that some currently small symptom meant you were at high risk to develop a mental illness maybe we could begin treatment early and reduce the severity and length of a mental illness. Hyperthymia just might be such a precursor.
Hyperthymia seems to be one of several personality characteristics that increase the likelihood of developing some symptoms of Bipolar Disorder. But an increase in risk does not equal you having or getting the disorder.
People with Hyperthymic personality characteristics who experience a depression, even a mild depression may “overreact” to antidepressants. Doctors have been warned to look out for high energy people who have an episode of depression and when given an antidepressant are propelled into mania or hypomania. An excess reaction to antidepressant could be one way of diagnosing Bipolar Disorder. One research study (Hoaki et al. 2011 published in Psychopharmacology) suggests that doctors should consider giving these Hyperthymic type people a mood stabilizer rather than an antidepressant.
Risk factors for Hyperthymia.
These researchers also found some other risk factors for developing Hyperthymic personality and presumably a soft form of Bipolar Disorder. Now, this is my understanding from reading this and other studies but a lot more research is needed in this area. Remember this is my opinion not necessarily the researchers.
When subjects for research were first screened there seemed to be a connection between how much they exercised and how “Hyperthymic” they were. Presumably, if you exercise more you have more energy. This did not end up in the lists of the risk factors for Hyperthymia so at this point it does not seem likely that more exercise will push people with risk factors into a Bipolar Disorder. But frankly, at this point, any connection between exercise and Hyperthymia or Bipolar Disorder seems like a wild guess. If anyone out there with Bipolar Disorder has seen a connection please drop me an email or leave a comment.
More light- More Hyperthymia.
Hoaki and his colleges found the relationship between light and Hyperthymia to be fairly strong. Even people who did not exercise much, when they were in brighter surroundings, had more energy and more Hyperthymic personality traits. So being outside or around more light might improve your energy level. We know that lack of light is one reason some people suffer from SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder) but this makes us wonder, could changes in light level provoke Hyperthymic episodes and might this be a risk factor for a hypomanic episode?
More variation in sleep – More Hyperthermia.
One diagnostic marker for manic and hypomanic episodes is a decreased need for sleep. What Hoaki’s article seems to suggest is that it is not just that a reduced need for sleep is a problem, but fluctuations in the amount of sleep from night-to-night may be a risk factor to set off Hyperthymic characteristics. Hoaki frames this as changes in bedtime; presumably, his subjects have a constant time to get up for work or school. Studying sleep fluctuations in people who have no set time to get up might clarify this issue.
Could fluctuations in the amounts of sleep be a risk factor for inducing Mania and Hypomania?
Hoaki et al. speculate that a consistent amount of sleep might be a preventative for developing Bipolar Disorder.
People with a Hyperthymic personality or temperament also had a tendency toward Serotonin Dysregulation. So the way in which Serotonin is used in the brain may be an important marker for Hyperthymic Personality as well as for mood disorders. Hoaki notes that other authors have suggested that people with a Hyperthymic personality may also have differences in the way their brains regulate dopamine. The more we learn about the brain the more neurotransmitters seem be involved in the way our brains work.
The conclusion of Hoaki’s study are that light, sleep and serotonin activity are all factors in Hyperthymic personality characteristics and in Bipolar disorder, so there is likely a connection between these two conditions. How the two conditions are related we are just not so sure.
Is Hyperthymia a personality disorder?
The lists of Personality Disorders listed in the DSM-4 as diagnosable mental illness is short and specific. Hyperthymic personality is not recognized as a disorder. It would be correct to consider Hyperthymia a personality characteristic or someone’s temperament but not as a disorder.
Those very energetic people may be annoying to some but they are just not considered mentally ill at this point.
More on the recognized personality disorders to come
Hope this helped to clarify Hyperthymia, Hyperthymic Personality characteristics and why there is not a recognized Hyperthymic Personality Disorder.
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