Ways people put drugs in the body. Routes of Drug Administration video #8

Ways people put drugs in their body. Routes of Drug Administration. Drug Ed video #8

By David Joel Miller, MS, Licensed Therapist & Licensed Counselor.

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Stimulant Drugs – video

Stimulant Use Disorders Video.

Stimulant Drugs – video

DSM Drug Categories – Drug Ed Video #6

Diagnosing Substance Use Disorders Drug Ed Video #5.

How to tell when drug and alcohol use is a problem? How do professionals diagnose Substance Use Disorders? Today’s video looks at the topic of identifying drug and alcohol problems.

What is Drug Withdrawal?

By David Joel Miller, MS, Licensed Therapist & Licensed Counselor.

Drugs.

Drugs.
Photo courtesy of Pixabay.

You’re more likely to have a drug withdrawal than you might think.

When people think of drug withdrawal the picture they see is the one of classic heroin withdrawal. Someone coming off heroin or other opiates does some “kicking” both drug wise and legs-wise. They also have diarrhea and “goose bumps.” Because opiates are pain relievers during withdrawals people can experience high levels of pain.

That dramatic type of withdrawal is not the only kind you might have. Each drug you might take can have some effects when the level in your body, principally in your bloodstream, begins to drop.

Drug Withdrawal Defined.

Drug withdrawal is an identifiable illness or syndrome that happens when someone stops taking a drug or reduces the amount they are using significantly. The symptoms begin when the level of a drug in the blood drops. Withdrawal symptoms can vary in severity and each drug has its own pattern of withdrawal symptoms. An alternative name for withdrawal is Abstinence Syndrome.

In the early stages of drug use, withdrawal symptoms may be minimal and go unnoticed. Once the body has adjusted to having that drug present and made adaptations the symptoms become more pronounced. Symptoms may not be entirely physical. For some drugs the primary withdrawal symptoms are psychological.

Withdrawal symptoms make it harder to stop using drugs.

The more severe the withdrawal symptoms the more likely the user is to pick that drug back up to reduce those symptoms. A withdrawal symptom of drugs taken to reduce anxiety, prescribed or self-medicated ones, is an increase in anxiety. People who smoke marijuana to reduce anxiety report that the anxiety gets really bad after they discontinue smoking it. This results in a return to marijuana use.

Getting rid of withdrawal symptoms is a strong motivator to resume drug use again.

The DSM-5 lists withdrawal effects for eight of the eleven classes of substances.

I find it interesting that some drugs such as Inhalants and Hallucinogens have no withdrawal symptoms specified. We also have only one diagnosis and F code for the group of drugs, Sedative, Hypnotic or Anxiolytic Drugs. Withdrawal from these drugs can be different with different drugs. Stimulant Withdrawal is separated and has one code for Cocaine and another for Amphetamines and other stimulants. These DSM-5 codes are a rough sketch. For the full details consult the DSM-5 text. Also, note that there are well-defined withdrawal criteria for Cannabis (Marijuana) and Caffeine.

Alcohol Withdrawal (F10.239 or F10.232)

Caffeine Withdrawal (F15.93)

Cannabis (Marijuana) Withdrawal (F12.288)

Opioid Withdrawal (F11.23)

Sedative, Hypnotic or Anxiolytic Withdrawal (F13.239, F13.232)

Stimulant Withdrawal

Amphetamine or other stimulant (F15.23)

Cocaine Withdrawal (F14.23)

Tobacco Withdrawal (F17.203)

Other (or Unknown) Substance Withdrawal (F19.239)

For more on drugs and recovery see:

Drug Use, Abuse, and Addiction      Recovery

Terms and their meaning can differ with the profession using them. The literature from the Rehab or AOD (Alcohol and Other Drug) field may be very different from that in the mental health field. There is still a large gap between recovery programs, AOD professionals and the terms and descriptions used in the DSM.

FYI These “What is” sometimes “What are” posts are my efforts to explain terms commonly used in Mental Health, Clinical Counseling, Substance Use Disorder Counseling, Psychology, Life Coaching and related disciplines in a plain language way. Many are based on the new DSM-5; some of the older posts were based on the DSM-IV-TR, both published by the APA. For the more technical versions please consult the DSM or other appropriate references.

Staying connected with David Joel Miller

Two David Joel Miller Books are available now!

Bumps on the Road of Life. Whether you struggle with anxiety, depression, low motivation, or addiction, you can recover. Bumps on the Road of Life is the story of how people get off track and how to get your life out of the ditch.

Casino Robbery is a novel about a man with PTSD who must cope with his symptoms to solve a mystery and create a new life.

For these and my upcoming books; please visit my Amazon Author Page – David Joel Miller

Want the latest blog posts as they publish? Subscribe to this blog.

Want the latest on news from recoveryland, the field of counseling, my writing projects, speaking and teaching? Please sign up for my newsletter at – Newsletter. I promise not to share your email or to send you spam, and you can unsubscribe at any time.

For more about David Joel Miller and my work in the areas of mental health, substance abuse, and Co-occurring disorders see my Facebook author’s page, davidjoelmillerwriter. A list of books I have read and can recommend is over at Recommended Books. If you are in the Fresno California area, information about my private practice is at counselorfresno.com.

What are the 11 drug categories in the DSM-5?

By David Joel Miller, MS, Licensed Therapist & Licensed Counselor.

What is

What are the 11 drug categories in the DSM-5?
Photo courtesy of Pixabay.

How does the DSM-5 classify drugs?

There are lots of ways to categorize drugs depending on why you are doing the categorizing. In the DSM-5 the drugs are primarily classified by the way they affect the body of the person who is using the drugs. This perspective is a medical one and the doctors likely have a different perspective on this than substance abuse or mental health counselors.

This classification of drugs appears in the substance use disorder section. Substance Use Disorders largely excludes the effects or side effects of prescribed medications. This classification system emphasizes drugs with similar effects on the body and which might be medically treated with similar medications. Counselors will likely see some of this from a somewhat different treatment perspective.

It is important to note that to get a diagnosis in the section the person does not have to intend to use the drug. Someone exposed to fumes or accidental exposure, say to pesticide, could meet criteria for a diagnosis if the chemical resulted in symptoms that fit one of these classifications.

Here are the 11 categories. Listed in the DSM in alphabetic order.

Alcohol F10.XX

Caffeine F15.9X

Cannabis (Primarily Marijuana) F12.XX

Hallucinogens F16.XX

Inhalants F18.XX

Opioids (Heroin and RX pills) F11.XX

Sedatives, Hypnotics, and Anxiolytics. F13.XX

Stimulants. (This combines Cocaine F14.XX and Amphetamines F15.XX, the DSM does not separate Meth from other amphetamines the way substance abuse treatment does.)

Tobacco F17.XX

Other or Unknown Substance Use Disorder F19.XX

Each particular drug may or may not have additional specifiers after the initial F number. Some have three digits after and some have only two available.

This DSM-5 classification system is only marginally related to the Federal Drug Schedules used here in the U. S. to regulate sale and prescription of drugs. Various groups and authors have classified drugs, both drugs of abuse and prescribed drugs, using a number of other systems. Some things we know are drugs are often not regulated because they are sold with a label “not for human consumption.” Herbal products and supplements fall into a gray area and regulation of these products along with classification is more problematic.

Substance use disorders are included in the DSM-5 and hence qualify as a “mental disorder.” As with the other things we are calling a mental illness or disorder this problem needs to interfere with your ability to work or go to school, your relationships, your enjoyable activities or cause you personal distress. Otherwise, you may have the issues but you will not get the diagnoses if this is a preference, not a problem.

One major reason people get this diagnosis is that they get arrested for breaking a drug-related law. This qualifies as a problem with some sort of functioning. With other mental illnesses, there is an exclusion if your problems only happen when you are under the influence of drugs or medicines or because of some other physical or medical problem. For substance use disorders we do not need to rule out drug use or exposure as causes.

FYI These “What is” sometimes “What are” posts are my efforts to explain terms commonly used in Mental Health, Clinical Counseling, Substance Use Disorder Counseling, Psychology, Life Coaching, and related disciplines in a plain language way. Many are based on the new DSM-5; some of the older posts were based on the DSM-IV-TR, both published by the APA. For the more technical versions please consult the DSM or other appropriate references.

You might also want to check out these other counselorssoapbox posts.

Drug Use, Abuse, and Addiction

Staying connected with David Joel Miller

Three David Joel Miller Books are available now!

Bumps on the Road of Life. Whether you struggle with anxiety, depression, low motivation, or addiction, you can recover. Bumps on the Road of Life is the story of how people get off track and how to get your life out of the ditch.

Casino Robbery is a novel about a man with PTSD who must cope with his symptoms to solve a mystery and create a new life.

SasquatchWandering through a hole in time, they encounter Sasquatch. Can they survive? The guests had come to Meditation Mountain to find themselves. Trapped in the Menhirs during a sudden desert storm, two guests move through a porthole in time and encounter long extinct monsters. They want to get back to their own time, but the Sasquatch intends to kill them.

For these and my upcoming books; please visit my Author Page – David Joel Miller

Books are now available on Amazon, Kobo, iBooks, Barnes & Noble, and many other online stores.

Want the latest blog posts as they publish? Subscribe to this blog.

Want the latest on news from recoveryland, the field of counseling, my writing projects, speaking and teaching? Please sign up for my newsletter at – Newsletter. I promise not to share your email or to send you spam, and you can unsubscribe at any time.

For more about David Joel Miller and my work in the areas of mental health, substance abuse, and Co-occurring disorders see my Facebook author’s page, davidjoelmillerwriter. If you are in the Fresno California area, information about my private practice is at counselorfresno.com.