What are the 5 drug schedules?

By David Joel Miller, MS, Licensed Therapist & Licensed Counselor.

Drugs.

Drugs.
Photo courtesy of Pixabay.

How the Federal government regulates who gets which drug.

Here in the United States, the federal government regulates the status of drugs, who gets which drugs and how based on their listing on one of five “drug schedules.” These schedules were created by the “Controlled Substance Act of 1970.”

This act separates drugs into schedules based on their potential for addiction, their acceptance for medical treatment and their safety. Prior to 1906, the U. S. had almost no laws regulating drug use or sales. Beginning with the Narcotic Control Act in 1956 laws regulating drugs have become a common topic in legislatures both federal and state.

Drugs can be moved up or down schedules as more data comes in. Clearly, some classification decisions have been based more on political sentiment than any hard research evidence. Some drugs that had little or no potential for abuse or dependence were left off the schedules. Herbal products and many over the counter medications are either regulated in a different way or not at all.

Two drugs that are the most destructive of human health, Nicotine and Alcohol are not listed on any of these drug enforcement schedules. Some other drugs, antipsychotics, and many antidepressant drugs are also not listed. Newer synthetic drugs, the methcathinone’s or bath salts, were not added until 1992.

Schedule I drugs.

These drugs have a high potential for abuse, these drugs are not commonly accepted for medical treatment in the U. S. and there is a lack of safety data to suggest these drugs would be safe for human consumption. Drugs on this schedule are considered some of the most dangerous of the abused drugs and may not be prescribed by a physician in the U. S. Unfortunately some drugs made this prohibited schedule mostly on the basis of opinions rather than evidence. Currently, Marijuana is a schedule I drug. (I know medical and recreational marijuana are “legal” in some states but the feds still have it on Schedule I. The feds do not license doctors so they can’t keep doctors with state licenses from prescribing marijuana but they can take that doctor’s DEA number. This issue probably needs another post.)

Schedule II drugs.

These drugs have a high potential for abuse. Use or abuse of this drug can lead to addiction as in physical or psychological dependency. These drugs do have a recognized medical use. The question for the doctor is, does that use justify the risks of the patient using the drug. Many of the opioids fall in this category. They work well on pain but they are very likely to produce addiction. These drugs require the prescribing doctor to have a DEA number and to write triplicate prescriptions. One copy stays with the doctor, one goes to the patient to carry to the pharmacy and one goes to the DEA. Hard to believe they miss pill mills considering they get these copies. Still, many of these meds do get diverted into illegal use and result in a significant amount of addiction and deaths.

Schedule III drugs.

Drugs on Schedule III are less likely to be abused than those on Schedules I and II. The medical value is high enough that there are fewer restrictions on prescribing these drugs including who is allowed to prescribe the drugs on this schedule. These drugs are not terribly physically addicting but may be very psychologically addicting.

Schedule IV drugs.

Drugs on this schedule are safer than those on Schedules I, II, and III. These drugs have accepted medical uses and are lower in addiction potential.

Schedule V drugs.

Lowest abuse potential and safest of the scheduled drugs.

Hope this helps explain how the Controlled Substance Act of 1970 with all its subsequent amendments is supposed to help reduce the prescription and use of dangerous pharmaceutical drugs. You may see that there are still some problems with the scheduling of specific drugs and scheduling does not keep them off the street but on balance I think things would be worse if there were no regulations of this kind.

FYI These “What is” sometimes “What are” posts are my efforts to explain terms commonly used in Mental Health, Clinical Counseling, Substance Use Disorder Counseling, Psychology, Life Coaching and related disciplines in a plain language way. Many are based on the new DSM-5; some of the older posts were based on the DSM-IV-TR, both published by the APA. For the more technical versions please consult the DSM or other appropriate references.

You might also want to check out these other counselorssoapbox posts.

Drug Use, Abuse, and Addiction

Staying connected with David Joel Miller

Two David Joel Miller Books are available now!

Bumps on the Road of Life. Whether you struggle with anxiety, depression, low motivation, or addiction, you can recover. Bumps on the Road of Life is the story of how people get off track and how to get your life out of the ditch.

Casino Robbery is a novel about a man with PTSD who must cope with his symptoms to solve a mystery and create a new life.

For these and my upcoming books; please visit my Amazon Author Page – David Joel Miller

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For more about David Joel Miller and my work in the areas of mental health, substance abuse, and Co-occurring disorders see my Facebook author’s page, davidjoelmillerwriter. A list of books I have read and can recommend is over at Recommended Books. If you are in the Fresno California area, information about my private practice is at counselorfresno.com.

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How are drugs classified?

By David Joel Miller, MS, Licensed Therapist & Licensed Counselor.

Drugs.

How are drugs classified?
Photo courtesy of Pixabay.

What kinds of drugs are abused?

There are a whole lot of drugs that get abused and they are not all the ones you might recognize. Drugs are classified in a variety of ways. Which classification system you want to use is partially dependent on why you are classifying the drug. For our purpose in this post “drug” includes prescription medications, drugs of abuse and things people give themselves to alter their sensory perception even if they are not always considered a drug. Here are some ways drugs can be classified.

Is this drug legal?

How law enforcement classifies and regulates drug use behavior impacts how we look at drugs in other contexts. The roots of the current 5 schedule system of drug classification for legal purposes are in the 1970 Controlled Substance act. Who can buy a drug; prescribe a drug and how this needs to be done, all fall under the legal classification system. Laws do not always fit neatly with the scientific evidence.  There are other posts, past and upcoming, about drug laws and regulations. You will find more drug info posts under Drug Use, Abuse, and Addiction.

Where does this drug come from?

Drugs can be plant or animal based, synthetic as in manufactured in a lab, or semisynthetic, that is a plant-based drug that is modified in the lab.

Some people have tried to make the argument that plant-based drugs are “natural” therefore less dangerous than synthetic or man-made drugs. This is often used as an argument for the legalization of marijuana.

Some natural plant-based drugs are poisonous and can prove fatal even in very small doses. The Opioid’s come from one species of poppy plant but is very addicting and an overdose can be fatal. Other drugs like LSD-25 were originally isolated from plant material (a fungus growing on rye grain) but can easily be synthesized in the lab. Other life-saving drugs are completely synthetic. The plant vs. factory origin way of classifying drugs has not proved useful to my way of thinking.

What is this drug used for?

Is a drug an antidepressant or a blood pressure med? Many dissimilar chemicals may be used to treat the same condition. Drugs to treat ADHD can be stimulant drugs or there are non-stimulant alternatives. Pain relievers include aspirin and Opiates. Aspirin can be used to treat heart issues and Opiates can be listed as a drug of abuse. The same medication may help treat depression or be used to help you stop smoking. Classifying drugs by use is problematic at best especially when we are talking about drugs that may be abused.

What part of the body does this drug work on?

Heart med, blood med or Liver med? Not all meds used to treat the heart do the same thing. Many drugs work on multiple parts of the body.  Drugs which are helpful in some places in the body eventually get broken down to be eliminated. A drug that is great for back pain may be harmful or even toxic to the kidney or liver where it needs to be removed from the body.

What is the chemical structure?

Some chemical structures have similar effects. There are a great many Barbiturates which are all similar in action. The contrary is that there are a great many compounds that end with “hydrochloride.” These can have extremely different properties.

What is its mechanism of action?

Drugs can be studied by how they do the things they do. Reuptake inhibitors stop the breakdown and recycling of neurotransmitters. While they may have similar mechanisms of action it matters which neurotransmitter they are prolonging.

What is its name?

Street names often describe the primary effects. Drugs can also be classified by chemical name, formula or brand name.

Other possibilities for classifying drugs.

Uppers Downers and All Arounders.

Inaba in his book Uppers, Downers and All Arounders simplified drugs, particularly drugs of abuse, into three primary categories. Uppers mean drugs used for their stimulant properties. Downers are depressant drugs. All-Arounders are drugs which alter perception including hallucinogens and Deliriants.

People who abuse stimulant drugs may switch between cocaine and amphetamine depending on the price and availability but they like the stimulant feeling. Downers, those drugs used for their depressant characteristics, include Alcohol, Heroin and other Opioids, and other central nervous system depressants.

The newest edition of his book also discusses some additional drugs that have mixed effects or do not fit neatly into the three grouping system but among drugs of abuse, the use of uppers and downers continues to be the largest part of what the substance use disorder treatment field treats.

Route of administration or method of use.

Inhalants can be any number of very dissimilar chemicals. Oral medications have in common only the way they enter the body as do injectable drugs.

You might also want to check out these other counselorssoapbox posts.

Drug Use, Abuse, and Addiction

More “What is” posts will be found at “What is.”

Staying connected with David Joel Miller

Three David Joel Miller Books are available now!

Bumps on the Road of Life. Whether you struggle with anxiety, depression, low motivation, or addiction, you can recover. Bumps on the Road of Life is the story of how people get off track and how to get your life out of the ditch.

Casino Robbery is a novel about a man with PTSD who must cope with his symptoms to solve a mystery and create a new life.

SasquatchWandering through a hole in time, they encounter Sasquatch. Can they survive? The guests had come to Meditation Mountain to find themselves. Trapped in the Menhirs during a sudden desert storm, two guests move through a porthole in time and encounter long extinct monsters. They want to get back to their own time, but the Sasquatch intends to kill them.

For these and my upcoming books; please visit my Author Page – David Joel Miller

Books are now available on Amazon, Kobo, iBooks, Barnes & Noble, and many other online stores.

Want the latest blog posts as they publish? Subscribe to this blog.

Want the latest on news from recoveryland, the field of counseling, my writing projects, speaking and teaching? Please sign up for my newsletter at – Newsletter. I promise not to share your email or to send you spam, and you can unsubscribe at any time.

For more about David Joel Miller and my work in the areas of mental health, substance abuse, and Co-occurring disorders see my Facebook author’s page, davidjoelmillerwriter. If you are in the Fresno California area, information about my private practice is at counselorfresno.com.

What is State Dependent Learning? Memory problems?

By David Joel Miller, MS, Licensed Therapist & Licensed Counselor.

Is it State Dependent Learning or Forgetting?

State-dependent learning.
Picture courtesy of pixabay.

The way we feel emotionally and the things in our systems, drugs, medications and general health all influence what we remember and what we forget. State-Dependent Learning is about times we remember and times we forget – the very same facts.

Say you go to a party or a bar after work and you have a few drinks. During the course of the evening, you talk to a lot of people. Let’s say for this example you have a lot of fun, it was a great time.

You have a few drinks but you are sure, positive, you are not drunk.

Next morning you look in your pocket or purse and there are a couple of business cards, only you can’t remember who these people are. Are they potential clients? Were you supposed to do something for them? Or did they try to sell you something? You just can’t remember. So you stick those cards back where they were and go about your day.

You are positive you were not that drunk, this is no alcoholic blackout. But it is frustrating anyway to not be able to remember why you have those business cards.

Later that day some of the people from your office are off to lunch, lunch with a client and you need to be there. So during this lunch, you have a drink or two. Suddenly you have a thought about those business cards in your pocket. So you pull them out and – yes now you remember the whole conversation and why you saved those cards.

You have just experienced State Dependent Learning.

In State Dependent Learning it is as if your brain uses different filing cabinets for information depending on how your system is functioning. With alcohol in your bloodstream, the brain files the information away in a “file needed when drinking” and locks it away. To get the file cabinet open and find that information you need the right key, in this case, alcohol, in your system to reopen the locked file cabinet.

Alcohol is not the only drug or medication that results in State Dependent Learning and lost file keys are not the only problem that can happen when filing information or trying to retrieve it.

Memories can get lost or distorted when they are filed away. Sometimes, as with alcoholic blackouts, the info is misplaced before going into the file. In that case, the brain, on discovering the file is empty, makes something up. This is called Confabulation.

Problems can happen when the information is stored and some drugs affect storage. The info can also be hard to find if it is stored in the “high” cabinet and you look for it in the “feeling normal” file space.

The size and nature of the information also matter. Say you need to remember a long list of words. If the words are makes of cars, types of seafood and tools sold in a hardware store, telling you those categories at the time we read the list to you will help you remember them. If the list is long, has words from many categories, and we don’t tell you the categories, the words will be harder to remember.

The brain has filing systems for category lists and for jumbled lists. Different drugs can affect different kinds of information storage and memory so the research can drive you nuts trying to figure out which drugs result in State Dependent Learning all the time and which only cause State Dependent Learning part of the time.

Alcohol appears to result in State Dependent Learning and other memory problems a lot.

Students who use a lot of caffeine to stay awake all night and study for finals appear to have a similar problem. Things learned under the influence of stimulants are very dose-dependent. So if you take a little of the stimulant you may learn more, take too much and it may block memory retention at all.

Methamphetamine users not only don’t learn a lot but begin to lose previously learned material. This makes us wonder how much amphetamine is helpful and how much of an ADHD med you can take before it impairs memory.

So our student, who studies all night, using stimulants to stay awake, may find two problems facing them the next day. State-Dependent Learning may require them to have the same stimulant and amount of stimulant in their system as when they learned it. This will be more or less of a problem depending on the type of memory involved. Picking out the correct answer from a multiple choice list will not be so much affected. Remembering a list of things that are not on the paper may be harder. So will recognizing a correct answer if the instructor uses a different word to describe the same concept.

The student may also find that the things they could remember easily when wide awake on the stimulant, those answers can’t be found now that the brain is looking in the I am “so-o-o” tired file cabinets. Your physical condition and mood can also affect learning and memory as can the context.

Frankly – no drug appears to improve your memory over a long time and using drugs or alcohol runs the risk of getting the facts you need, lost in a wrong file cabinet and not available when you need them.

Other drugs and prescribed medications can also cause memory problems and or State Dependent Learning. Watch for more on this topic to come.

Staying connected with David Joel Miller

Three David Joel Miller Books are available now!

Bumps on the Road of Life. Whether you struggle with anxiety, depression, low motivation, or addiction, you can recover. Bumps on the Road of Life is the story of how people get off track and how to get your life out of the ditch.

Casino Robbery is a novel about a man with PTSD who must cope with his symptoms to solve a mystery and create a new life.

SasquatchWandering through a hole in time, they encounter Sasquatch. Can they survive? The guests had come to Meditation Mountain to find themselves. Trapped in the Menhirs during a sudden desert storm, two guests move through a porthole in time and encounter long extinct monsters. They want to get back to their own time, but the Sasquatch intends to kill them.

For these and my upcoming books; please visit my Author Page – David Joel Miller

Books are now available on Amazon, Kobo, iBooks, Barnes & Noble, and many other online stores.

Want the latest blog posts as they publish? Subscribe to this blog.

Want the latest on news from recoveryland, the field of counseling, my writing projects, speaking and teaching? Please sign up for my newsletter at – Newsletter. I promise not to share your email or to send you spam, and you can unsubscribe at any time.

For more about David Joel Miller and my work in the areas of mental health, substance abuse, and Co-occurring disorders see my Facebook author’s page, davidjoelmillerwriter. If you are in the Fresno California area, information about my private practice is at counselorfresno.com.

Could psych meds kill?

By David Joel Miller, MS, Licensed Therapist & Licensed Counselor.

Drugs

Drug counseling.
Photo courtesy of Pixabay.com

Taking your medication could kill you or someone else.

When we think of drug-related deaths we think first of illegal street drugs and overdose deaths but in fact, legal drugs or medication kill a lot more people than the illegal ones. Psych meds do result in deaths and serious injury.

Several recent studies have highlighted the dangers of taking prescription medication and driving. The problem of impaired drivers includes those taking prescribed psychiatric medication. A recent large study in Taiwan confirms what other studies in the United States have suggested. There is a definite link between taking some, but not all, prescription psychiatric medication and serious car accidents.

At the top of the list for possible danger is sleeping medications. Sleeping pills have been implicated in episodes where people who have no history of substance abuse still had a “black out” and drove without a memory of taking the trip. Now we have evidence that people who take sleeping pills are more likely to be involved in serious accidents. Even if you do not feel impaired you may be at risk. The person who is in no shape to drive is also the person who can’t tell if they are impaired.

Anti-anxiety medications particularly Benzodiazepines have been involved in a number of cases of serious car accidents.

Antidepressants are also present in the system of people who are involved in accidents in a disproportionate number of car crashes. Why antidepressants should be involved is still unclear.

Surprisingly the recent studies have not shown any significant connection between antipsychotics and accidents.

It is not those diagnosed with paranoid-schizophrenia but the anxious-insomniacs who are crashing into us.

My guess is that the increased use of the newer atypical antipsychotic medications has resulted in people with psychosis leading better, safer lives.

Another overlooked factor in accident prevention has been the association of marijuana smoking and serious car accidents. Most people know about the connection between alcohol and accidents but weed?

Studies have shown that the majority of drivers involved in serious accidents are positive for marijuana (THC) at the time of their accident. Either smoking marijuana is increasing your risk of an accident, or most people these days are smoking weed.

Regardless of your feelings about marijuana, drug legalization or decriminalization there appears to be a connection between being high on weed and getting in an accident. So if you smoke I would prefer it if you stayed off the road, especially while I am out there.

So now we know more about this subject of medications, drugs, and driving.

It is not just illegal drugs or alcohol that can impair your driving ability, prescribed drugs including some psychiatric ones also can increase the risk of you hurting yourself or others while driving.

The combination of prescribed medication, street drugs and or alcohol, is just asking to be in a serious accident.

Staying connected with David Joel Miller

Two David Joel Miller Books are available now!

Bumps on the Road of Life. Whether you struggle with anxiety, depression, low motivation, or addiction, you can recover. Bumps on the Road of Life is the story of how people get off track and how to get your life out of the ditch.

Casino Robbery is a novel about a man with PTSD who must cope with his symptoms to solve a mystery and create a new life.

For these and my upcoming books; please visit my Amazon Author Page – David Joel Miller

Want the latest blog posts as they publish? Subscribe to this blog.

Want the latest on news from recoveryland, the field of counseling, my writing projects, speaking and teaching? Please sign up for my newsletter at – Newsletter. I promise not to share your email or to send you spam, and you can unsubscribe at any time.

For more about David Joel Miller and my work in the areas of mental health, substance abuse, and Co-occurring disorders see my Facebook author’s page, davidjoelmillerwriter. A list of books I have read and can recommend is over at Recommended Books. If you are in the Fresno California area, information about my private practice is at counselorfresno.com.

Top 4 reasons people drink or use

By David Joel Miller, MS, Licensed Therapist & Licensed Counselor.

Drugs of addiction

Addiction.
Photo courtesy of Pixabay.com

The top 4 reasons you began to drink or use drugs.

Many people want to find the reasons they drank and used. Here are some common reasons and what to do about them.

1. Good day – celebrate.

In the beginning, it is all good. A little of this or that will help you celebrate. Your drug of choice helped you feel stronger, more attractive, more outgoing and smarter. No one gives up a substance that makes them feel like that.

Drinking and using is often a social thing, you do it with your friends until your abuse of substances drives friends away and it is just you and your drug.

At the start of addiction, it is all good. As time goes on the wreckage mounts. What the addicted person eventually learns is that the drug was not their friend, making them happy, sharing their happiness. Addiction is a thief that steals your happiness.

Solution? Learn to celebrate without drugs and alcohol.

2. Bad day – drink, use to cheer yourself up.

People drink and use to change their mood. If you are sad, use a chemical to brighten your day. It works for a while. Then the drug or the alcohol stops working. It leaves you still miserable. Eventually, that drug begins to beat you up. The drug becomes the reason you are sad and depressed. The drug makes you anxious and scared.

We hear the refrain everywhere we go. This went wrong – I need a drink. That was late or unpleasant – I need a drink. People around you will tell you “You look like you could use a drink.” Not till years later will you hear “I think you have been drinking too much.”

Solution? – Learn to manage negative emotions without chemicals and learn that sometimes it is normal to feel bad for a while.

3. Boring day use drugs to create excitement.

In the early stages of use, it sounds exciting. Things are dull and boring – get high. Don’t know what you want to do – get high. For everything that is missing the refrain is get high. When there is nothing left and your life has passed by unlived you might realize that getting high day after day is the same old boring thing.

Solution – Learn to become excited about the things you already do and learn to enjoy the benefits of peace and quiet sometimes.

4. Any other reason to use whether it satisfies you or not.

Most addicts or alcoholics have a reason the tell themselves is why they drink. They had a lousy childhood, that’s why they use. They lost a partner and that means they will forever be alone. The drug promises comfort and companionship.

Drugs and alcohol pretend to be your friend. They promise a cure for loneliness, anger, and pain. In the end, they take everything you have and leave you to defeated to care anymore.

Alcohol looks like a cure for anger; it takes your mind off the thing that made you angry for a moment. But it also lowers your inhibitions. People who treat anger with alcohol are more likely to get violent, not less. People who treat depression are at an increased risk to attempt suicide or other self-harming behaviors. Treating negative emotions makes the emotion more of a problem not less.

While many people with a drug or alcohol problem would like to find a hidden reason why they drink and drug – the truth is that even when they think they have discovered the reason they still have the addiction. The reason for addiction is simple, addicts and alcoholics put chemicals in their bodies to change the way they feel and act. Once there the drug turns on the user and takes control of their life.

Solution? Build a life with meaning and purpose that is built on real experiences not the fraud of addiction.

Staying connected with David Joel Miller

Two David Joel Miller Books are available now!

Bumps on the Road of Life. Whether you struggle with anxiety, depression, low motivation, or addiction, you can recover. Bumps on the Road of Life is the story of how people get off track and how to get your life out of the ditch.

Casino Robbery is a novel about a man with PTSD who must cope with his symptoms to solve a mystery and create a new life.

For these and my upcoming books; please visit my Amazon Author Page – David Joel Miller

Want the latest blog posts as they publish? Subscribe to this blog.

Want the latest on news from recoveryland, the field of counseling, my writing projects, speaking and teaching? Please sign up for my newsletter at – Newsletter. I promise not to share your email or to send you spam, and you can unsubscribe at any time.

For more about David Joel Miller and my work in the areas of mental health, substance abuse, and Co-occurring disorders see my Facebook author’s page, davidjoelmillerwriter. A list of books I have read and can recommend is over at Recommended Books. If you are in the Fresno California area, information about my private practice is at counselorfresno.com.

Morning Question # 9 Is Substance abuse or mental illness first?

By David Joel Miller, MS, Licensed Therapist & Licensed Counselor.

Hands with pills

Addiction.
Photo courtesy of Pixabay

Does Substance abuse or mental illness occur first?

Both can be first, depends on the person. People who have early symptoms of mental illness are at high risk of developing substance abuse disorders. People who begin abusing substances early in life are more likely to develop mental illness. It may be hard for many people to remember a time before they had one or the other so it is hard to tell sometimes. I like to start by asking how old someone was when they first began to use drugs and alcohol and then ask what life was like before the drugs or alcohol. Some people can’t remember a time before one or both.

Staying connected with David Joel Miller

Two David Joel Miller Books are available now!

Bumps on the Road of Life. Whether you struggle with anxiety, depression, low motivation, or addiction, you can recover. Bumps on the Road of Life is the story of how people get off track and how to get your life out of the ditch.

Casino Robbery is a novel about a man with PTSD who must cope with his symptoms to solve a mystery and create a new life.

For these and my upcoming books; please visit my Amazon Author Page – David Joel Miller

Want the latest blog posts as they publish? Subscribe to this blog.

Want the latest on news from recoveryland, the field of counseling, my writing projects, speaking and teaching? Please sign up for my newsletter at – Newsletter. I promise not to share your email or to send you spam, and you can unsubscribe at any time.

For more about David Joel Miller and my work in the areas of mental health, substance abuse, and Co-occurring disorders see my Facebook author’s page, davidjoelmillerwriter. A list of books I have read and can recommend is over at Recommended Books. If you are in the Fresno California area, information about my private practice is at counselorfresno.com.

Morning Question #7 – Toxicology not picking up bath salts?

By David Joel Miller, MS, Licensed Therapist & Licensed Counselor.

New drugs

Bath salts.
Photo courtesy of Pixabay.com

Do drug tests find Bath Salts?

The jury is still out on that one. Bath salts can be made from hundreds, maybe thousands of chemicals. Standard drug testing and hospital toxicology screens just are not designed to find a whole lot of drugs that are rare or unusual. Drug users are constantly looking for ways to beat drug tests and the labs look for ways to catch the cheaters. The wheel keeps going around. I think that there are lots of kids and older drug users, playing with synthetic drugs these days, and those drugs do not show up on standard drug tests.

If the person asking this is referring to those high-profile cases that make the news. Those CSI types are pretty good at finding things so if they say something was not there, I am a lot more confident it wasn’t there than when someone is reading a standard 5-panel instant drug test.

Staying connected with David Joel Miller

Two David Joel Miller Books are available now!

Bumps on the Road of Life. Whether you struggle with anxiety, depression, low motivation, or addiction, you can recover. Bumps on the Road of Life is the story of how people get off track and how to get your life out of the ditch.

Casino Robbery is a novel about a man with PTSD who must cope with his symptoms to solve a mystery and create a new life.

For these and my upcoming books; please visit my Amazon Author Page – David Joel Miller

Want the latest blog posts as they publish? Subscribe to this blog.

Want the latest on news from recoveryland, the field of counseling, my writing projects, speaking and teaching? Please sign up for my newsletter at – Newsletter. I promise not to share your email or to send you spam, and you can unsubscribe at any time.

For more about David Joel Miller and my work in the areas of mental health, substance abuse, and Co-occurring disorders see my Facebook author’s page, davidjoelmillerwriter. A list of books I have read and can recommend is over at Recommended Books. If you are in the Fresno California area, information about my private practice is at counselorfresno.com.